Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance. Ecological footprints and life-cycle analysis aim to capture biophysical performance, including up- and downstream effects of policy decisions. Aquaculture provides a range of services but also makes demands and impacts on ecosystem functions, services, and thus biodiversity.
Citation: Troell, M., N. Kautsky, M. Beveridge, P. Henriksson, J. Primavera, P. Rönnbäck, C. Folke and M. Jonell. 2017. Aquaculture. In: Reference Module in Life Sciences. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809633-8.02007-0
Keywords: Aquaculture feed, Ecological footprint, Ecosystem service, Environmental impact, Fishmeal, Fish resources, Integrated aquaculture, Life-cycle analysis, Mangrove, Shrimp, Wastes